Thursday, March 12, 2020

Free sample - Alcoholism. translation missing

Alcoholism. AlcoholismAlcoholism is am addiction disease. It is widespread and serious disease, which exists in a modern world. Alcoholism brings consequences on physical, psychological, social and economical functioning of a person that consumes alcohol. Even if alcohol is being consumed for centuries, studying the harmful effects that alcohol causes started recently. In the beginning, alcoholism was not considered a disease, it was considered a vice. However, the World Health Organization declared alcoholism a disease in 1951, and the problem related to defining alcoholism appears. Defining alcoholism was difficult because the â€Å"alcoholism† includes variety of physical, psychological and social changes. Ayd defined alcoholism as a chronic disease with combined influence of genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors, which have strong influence in the development of alcoholism and its manifestations. It is considered as a progressive disease, which can be fatal, and it can be characterized by reduced control over consummation of alcohol, high level of preoccupation with alcohol, usage of alcohol (despite consequences), and possible appearance of distortions in thinking (such as denial) (27). Alcoholism is a chronicle disease, characterized with persistent consummation of alcohol, even with the knowledge of harmful effect that it produces. It manifests as incapability of controlling the act of drinking, and as a time goes by the whole life of an alcoholic is subordinated to drinking. The drinking is conducted, usually, on a daily basis, and it can be common for an alcoholic to deny this craving, although they do not want to eliminate the alcohol from their life. DSM IV classification represents alcoholism as an illness that includes alcohol abuse and dependence, which can be episodic or continuous. Alcoholism can be viewed as use of alcohol in a quantity and a frequency, which causes significant physiological, psychological, sociological or occupational problems (Ayd, 21). World Health Organization presented the following definition of alcoholism: â€Å"A chronic behavioral disorder manifested by repeated drinking of alcoholic beverages in excess of the dietary and social uses of the community and to an extent that interferes with the drinker’s health or his social or economic functions† (Zimberg, 4.). Jellinek (via Zimberg) gave the classification of several types of alcoholism: â€Å"alpha alcoholism†, defined as an abuse of alcohol, which is used to relieve physical or psychological pain, without losing the ability to control the drinking, with no withdrawal symptoms and no significant progression of the disease. â₠¬Å"Beta alcoholism†, defined as an alcoholism that has no physical or psychological dependence; it can be progressive and can produce medical complications. â€Å"Gamma alcoholism† represents the type of alcoholism in which control over drinking does not exist, and it produces physical, psychological and social problems. â€Å"Delta alcoholism† is a type of alcoholism that produces physical, psychological and social problems, and the person that drinks has a potential possibility of abstaining from alcohol for some period. â€Å"Epsilon alcoholism† is described as a periodic binge drinking (4). Symptoms of alcoholism - There is no one symptom that could define the alcoholism. The symptoms of alcoholism can be diverse and can vary, mostly depending on the person that consumes alcohol.   Stimmel mentioned that the National Council on Alcoholism has developed a list of signs and symptoms for diagnosing alcoholism, and that they can be divided into two main groups: definitive and probable (103). According to National Council on Alcoholism (via Stimmel), definite symptoms are: physical dependency on alcohol, followed with tremor, hallucinations and seizures; changes in psychological functioning; influence of alcohol on a brain; complications caused by drinking alcohol; continuous drinking with no consideration to many medical contraindications; indiscriminate use of alcohol; alcoholic blackouts; blood alcohol level over the 0.15 -0.30 percent. Probable symptoms of alcoholism are: loss of control over drinking; repetitive drinking and/or morning drinking; repeated attempts to a chieve abstinence; excuses from work; denying alcoholism by changing the type of alcoholic beverage; lack of interest for activities that are not associated with consummation of alcohol; low ability to control the emotion of rage when drinking, possible suicidal thoughts when drinking; using of alcohol as a method to reduce insomnia, anger and depression (103). O'Neill and Sher have emphasized next group of symptoms: spending a lot of time during the day or night thinking about alcohol, neglecting obligation because of consummation of alcohol, being late or missing the school or work, feeling a strong need for a drink early in the morning, attempting to stop with drinking, and feeling dependent on alcohol. (496). Some other symptoms of alcoholism might be tolerance and withdrawal (with possible severe withdrawal symptoms - hallucinations or convulsions), reduction of the number of activities because of drinking, using alcohol in potentially dangerous situations (driving), and time spent drinking (the time spent to consume alcohol increases over time). As the time goes by, an alcoholic will have to drink more to achieve the same â€Å"effect† that alcohol provides, and there is a possibility to see them drinking alone, by themselves, and finding excuses for exaggerated drinking. Causes of alcoholism - The alcoholism is a disease, which is caused by interaction of multiple causes. Causes are often complex and they have become numerous during the time. Grant and Gwinner considered following factors as main factors which help development of alcohol dependence: biological (impact on central nervous system, metabolism of alcohol, sensitivity to alcohol), psychological (personality traits and attitudes), and socio-cultural factors (64). According to Gifford, the causes of alcoholism should be looked for in genetics, environment and neurology (29). Also, a person who has mood disorders (anxiety or depression) is at higher risk to become dependent from alcohol. Genetics: There are evidences that support the thesis of inherited predisposition to alcohol dependence (Gifford, 29). It can be manifested as person’s vulnerability to alcohol dependence, due to the functioning of opiate receptors and the functioning of a liver. However, having a parent that is dependent on alcohol does not mean that a person will become an alcoholic itself. Genetic predispositions combined with other groups of factors (such as environmental factors) might contribute to appearance of alcohol dependence. Environment: the influence of a family on person’s development can be seen in a behavior related to alcohol consumption. Children who have alcoholic parents are at four times higher risk of developing alcohol dependence than children whose parents do not consume alcohol (Gifford, 30). The contributing influence on alcohol drinking can be availability of alcohol, being surrounded with peers that consume alcohol, advertising of alcohol (making it attractive and desirable), conflicts at the work or in home, and the presence of a partner that consumes alcohol. Other authors summarize causes of alcohol dependence, and some of them are family influence, influence of a culture, and adult situation (McCord McCord, 150). Anthony et al. conducted a research that gave following results: males are more prone to develop alcohol dependence than women are (249). Person from age 25-34 years old are more prone to develop alcohol dependence (251). Lack of employment, low academic achievement can bring a risk of development of alcohol dependence (253). Neurology: abuse of alcohol causes changes in entire body, and it especially leaves harmful consequences to a sensitive tissue of the brain. The main consequences are related to disbalance of neurotransmitters. Consummation of alcohol can cause disbalance of chemicals in the brain tissue, and it can regulate, in some way, the chemical balance in the brain. Whenever this balance is disturbed the brain might cause the body to feel the need for alcohol, in order to keep the balance of chemicals in order, while, at the same time, brain gradually looses the ability to maintain the balance on its own (Gifford, 30). Impacts of alcoholism - Alcohol consumption leads towards many complications, which can be general and long term, and can involve every aspect of a person’s life. Impact of alcoholism can be seen in health condition, psychological functioning, and socio-cultural aspect of a person’s life. According to Gifford, the most common health problems related to alcohol dependency are: problems with endocrine system (liver-alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, which produces secondary effects: vitamin deficiency, decreased absorption of fat, damages in cell structure, low blood sugar, etc. (32, 33), pancreas-diabetes), and digestive system (damage of intestine’s walls (can cause bleeding), reducing the amount of digestive enzymes (34)). There are significant problems with cardiovascular system (blood-appearance of anemia, blood clots, suppressing of the immune system, problems with creation of platelet, heart-high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, coronary artery disease, myocarditis, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia (34, 35)). Sexual related problems include practicing sex without any protection (pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases), and the appearance of problems with sexual performance in males. Alcohol can influence on women’s pregnancy and cause fetal alcohol syndrome and numerous defects on a fetus, if a mother continues to drink during the pregnancy (36). Impact of alcohol on a nervous system is manifested on brain (disbalance of neurotransmitters and tissue degeneration. Some of the problems that can occur are amnesia, dementia, abstinence syndrome and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (35, 36)) and damages of nerves (peripheral neuropathy (36)). Alcohol can contribute to problems with respiratory system: lung infections (pneumonia, tuberculosis) and possible lung scarring (36). Impact on psychological life can be seen in appearance of depression and suicidal thoughts, anxiety, possible visual and auditory hallucinations (Spielberger, 126). Social complications are related to drunk driving, worse performance at work or at school, and relationship problems (Gifford, 39). Treatment of alcoholism – because alcohol dependency is a complex disease with various types of alcohol users, and numerous causes, the treatment of this disease should use the combination of multiple types of therapy. The most common therapy is based on a combination of psychological (â€Å"12 step facilitation†, group therapy-Alcoholic Anonymous (AA), â€Å"controlled drinking† (Spielberger, 126)), and pharmaceutical therapy (such as using of naltrexone). The behavioral therapy is being used in a combination with pharmacotherapy, because psychological treatment is, sometimes, not effective for all patients (Galanter, 4). The following statistic gives insight into the severity of the alcoholism as a social problem: 14 million people in the U.S.A. are alcohol dependent. 66% of the U.S.A. population consumes alcohol. 9.8 million men and 3.9 million women abuse alcohol or they think they are alcohol-dependent. 41% of all traffic fatalities in U.S.A. are caused by drinking alcohol. Approximately 43% of U.S.A. adults have had a child, parent, sibling or spouse who is dependent on alcohol, or was dependent on alcohol† (citation is retrieved from the internet site1). Ayd, Frank J. Lexicon of psychiatry, neurology, and the neurosciences. Lippincott Williams Wilkins, 2000 Anthony, James C. , Warner, Lynn A., Kessler, Ronald C. Comparative Epidemiology of Dependence on Tobacco, Alcohol, Controlled Substances, and Inhalants: Basic Findings From the National Comorbidity Survey. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 1994. Vol. 2, No. 3, 244-268 Galanter, Marc. Research on alcoholism treatment: methodology, psychosocial treatment, selected treatment topics, research priorities. Springer, 2003 Gifford, Maria. Alcoholism. ABC-CLIO, 2009 Grant, Marcus, Gwinner, Paul. Alcoholism in perspective. Taylor Francis, 1979 McCord, William Maxwell, McCord, Joan. Origins of alcoholism. Stanford University Press, 1960 O'Neill, Susan E., Sher, Kenneth J. Physiological Alcohol Dependence Symptoms in Early Adulthood:A Longitudinal Perspective. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2000, Vol. 8, No. 4, 493-508 Spielberger, Charles D. Encyclopedia of applied psychology, Volume 1. Academic Press, 2004 Stimmel, Barry. Alcoholism, drug addiction, and the road to recovery: life on the edge. Routledge, 2002 Zimberg, Sheldon. The clinical management of alcoholism. Psychology Press, 1982

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Teaching about Religions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 20

Teaching about Religions - Essay Example The course ids fit for high school students who need to gain familiarity with different ideologies and belief systems exhibited by different religions. Introducing the course at the high school level will produce students with open minds and who exhibit tolerance for the religious beliefs of other people. In order to successfully implement this project, there is a need for all stakeholders involved to approve the introduction of the course. This memo describes both the primary and the secondary audience, which comprises of different levels of stakeholders. The primary audience includes the board of the school, parents, teachers, and the students. The school board is the key decision maker in a high school setting. There is a need for the board to understand the potential outcomes of introducing a course that teaches students about the different religions and countries. The board comprises of people with professional experience and expertise, who have the vision of ensuring that the school registers a positive impact on the society. Evidently, introducing this new course serves to register an immensely positive impact. Moreover, the school board should consider the relevance of the course and determine whether the school has the required resources by offering the course. It is critical to consult staff and parents because of their position in the school’s decision-making process. The staff’s opinion is critical because they will actively participate in the delivery of the course content to the students. Parents need to be aware of what their children learn in school and should form part of the student milestones in the education system (Lester, 2011). Students from the ultimate stakeholders because they stand to benefit from the course. Therefore, it is significant to consider their opinion on the potential benefits of the course to their individual and social lives.

Saturday, February 8, 2020

How to use marketing mix buile Chiang Rai province as a destination Dissertation

How to use marketing mix buile Chiang Rai province as a destination during winter season - Dissertation Example This report highlights on the areas such as the marketing mix which can be adopted to make this place as a favorite tourist destination. The report also highlights the way by which a tourist spot such as Chiang Rai can be developed. Another important aspect of the research paper is that it will show how segmentation in tourism can be achieved. The key findings of the project are how marketing mix influences the decision of a tourist. The other important findings are the data which shows the number of visitors coming to Thailand in a calendar year and also the expected number of turnouts in the years to come. Table of Contents Table of Contents 3 Introduction 4 Literature Review 5 Research Question 10 Research Methodology 13 Conclusion 15 Reference 16 Bibliography 18 Appendix 1 19 Appendix 2 21 Introduction Siam was the name during 1940 to what we today know as Thailand. The country of Thailand resides in the heart of South East Asia. The country comprises of brilliant arts, green isl ands, an exciting nightlife and a tradition of openness towards the visitors. The nation is known to many as the home of some delicious cuisines, wonderful silks and some of the magnificent temples. These factors portray the great culture of the country. It has never been occupied by the European powers, possibly the only country in south- East Asia to have escaped it. The structure and geography of the country is that it is divided into 4 natural regions: the mountains and forests of the north; the vast rice fields in the central plains; the farm lands of the northern plateau and Tropical Island in the southern peninsula. Politically Thailand is again divided in 77 provinces such as Ang Thong, Mae Hong Son and Lop Buri, Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai among others. While the capital of Thailand namely Bangkok is not a provincial area but it is referred as a special administrative area (Central Intelligence Agency, n.d.). All the provinces are governed by a Governor who is appointed by th e ministry of external affairs. The only contrary factor is that the Governor of Bangkok is chosen by its people through voting (Unescap, n.d.). A number of countries in Asia believe that tourism plays an important role in the economic and social development of a country. It generates foreign exchange earnings, employment and also assists in other factors. Tourism plays a major part in the economy of Thailand, contributing around 7% of the total GDP. Every year Thailand is visited by around 14 million visitors. The visitors come from different parts of the world (The Irrawaddy, 2010). The reason for this massive tourism development of the country is mainly due to the stable political situation and the availability of air transportation in Bangkok which serves as the gateway to this international venue. Industries like hotel and retail gets immensely benefited by the tourism industry. The Tourism Authority of Thailand has launched various programs to promote the tourism sector in the ir country as well as internationally with their catchy slogans like â€Å"Unseen Thailand† and â€Å"Amazing Thailand†. According to them there were nearly 19.09 million tourists who visited Thailand in 2011 which also means 19.8% growth as compared to the previous year. The tourism revenue generated around $23.08 million, which was the highest ever tourism revenue in a same calendar year. The tourists were mainly from Malaysia which accounts 2.47 million followed by China (1.76

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Irish immigrants Essay Example for Free

Irish immigrants Essay When the Irish began arriving in America in large numbers in the 1840s, they were generally destitute and unskilled, and for decades they occupied the lowest levels of American society, often trapped in menial jobs like domestic service or difficult, often dangerous jobs like railroad and canal construction.   According to historian Paul Boyer, â€Å"Irish immigrants entered the work force at the bottom.   Paddy with his pickax and Bridget the maid were simultaneously stereotypes and realities† (Boyer et al 273).   However, they rose quickly in America compared to other immigrants groups, mainly because of several advantages. Their ability to speak English certainly helped them, giving them advantages that later immigrants from non-English-speaking nations did not immediately have.   In occupations like factory labor, they were able to rise more quickly than other immigrants, slowly moving up the social ladder.   In addition, they gradually More importantly, the urban Irish became active in politics, particularly within the Democratic Party, which appealed to the new arrivals and offered them assistance in finding housing and jobs in exchange for votes.   This gave the Irish a wide array of opportunities, moving from unskilled labor into better-paying blue-collar positions as firefighters, police officers, and workers in city departments like sanitation, water, and streets. By 1900, the Irish had already ascended through the working class and were making headway in the middle class, and this progress accelerated as later immigrants from southern and eastern Europe began arriving by the millions.   The head start they enjoyed in arriving sooner than most other ethnic groups, their knowledge of English, and their affinity for politics all combined to give Irish immigrants advantages that other immigrant groups would not enjoy to the same degree. Boyer, Paul et al.   The Enduring Vision.   Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Objective of Total Quality Management Essay -- Total Quality Manag

The Objective of Total Quality Management Total Quality Management(TQM) is an organisational process that actively involves every function and every employee in satisfying customers needs, both internal and external. TQM works by continuously improving all aspect of work through structured control, improvement and planning activities that are carried out in concern with guiding ideology that focuses on Quality and Customer Satisfaction as the top priorities. There has been many arguments that TQM succeeds only by incorporating a concern about quality for the customers throughout the organisation. The truth of this statement and those facts that disagree with this statement will be look into and discuss in more detail to achieve the success of TQM. TQM recognises that the Customer is at the center of every activity. The customer may be external or internal. The key is to determine the gap between what the customer needs and what the system delivers. Once the gap is recognised, it would be systematically reduced and results in never-ending improvement in customer satisfaction at every level. TQM depends on and creates a culture in an organisation which involves everybody in quality improvement. Everyone in the company can affect quality but must first realise this factor and have the techniques and tools which are appropriate for improving quality. Thus TQM includes the marketing and dissemination of quality and methods not only within the organisation and customers but also to suppliers and other partners. The general view to achieve success in TQM could be summarised as below: Quality as strength Quality in all processes The importance of management The involvement, commitment and responsibility of everybody Continuous improvement Zero defects Focus on prevention rather than inspection Meeting the needs of target customers Recovery Benchmarking A prerequisite for successful quality improvement is first, to understand how quality is perceived and valued by customers. 4 ‘Q' Design Quality Technical Quality Production Quality Delivery Quality Functional Quality Relational Quality Image Experiences Expectation Customer Perceived Quality ... ...ccess. Ownership and the Elements of Self-Management Total quality programmes are founded on the principal that people want to own the problems, the process, the solution and ultimately the success associated with the quality improvement. Psychologically, the ownership advocated by TQM ties in the development in organisational design away from traditional models of imposing management control over employees' behaviour. Recognition and Rewards TQM system considers the rewards and recognition to be critical to a company's programme, particularly when greater involvement of staff is required. Positive reinforcement through recognition and rewards is essential to maintain achievement and continuous improvement through participative problem-solving projects. The Quality Delivery Process TQM is not just the awareness of quality for the customers. It demands the implementation of a new system. Finally, the main objective of TQM may put the customer at the center of every activity and consider the process as customer driven, but all other factors which do not involve the customers have to be taken into consideration for the successful implementation of TQM.

Monday, January 13, 2020

People Today Move to New Cities Essay

People today move to new cities or new countries more then ever before.what challenges do they experience ?what strateges are there to meet these challenges? Moving to a new place, either within a country or overseas, is a very hard situation. One must take several considerations before leaving the home where a person grew and live for many years. People who are planning to relocate should know the big challenges ahead and they must also learn to take note of the strategies in facing these upcoming changes. Humankind has many reasons for leaving their hometown and trying to mix and mingle with other races. Most if them will move temporarily for the sake of their career, for them to be able to gain new experiences, to search for a high paying job or simply for promotion. While others relocate permanently to be with their husband and wife. Some search for a new place to live in just to try different locations and environment. Most of the expatriates claimed that they had a hard time adapting to a new world. It is not really that easy to move away from one’s family and work without knowing how long one would stay far away from home. One of the big challenges in these kind of situation is homesickness. The family is celebrating a simple event and friends are having their new routines without one’s presence. Having a phone call is becoming hard for them, making the separated loved one sad and lonely. Another thing to take in consider is the location of the new soon to be haven. If it is safe, as well as the people and environment that surrounds it. If there will be a near department stores, groceries, bank and other daily things to be needed. Before moving to a different site, one must first search for the specific details of that place. Like for example, the cost of living, a person might not want to be surprise with a high cost of living, especially to those who have kids. Furthermore, to a career-oriented ones, they should know if the city or a country has a good economy for them to anticipate a good pay. As well as learning in advance the culture of the place in order for them to avoid culture shock and deal with it easily. relocating to a new world is a bad idea to some people. So, a person must be prepared to face the major changes and open-mindedly accept the inevitable challenges to make a successful transfer.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Law Cases Of Insider Trading In Multinational Corporations Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2355 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Insider trading is buying or selling corporate stock by a corporate officer or other insider on the basis of information that has not been made public and is supposed to remain confidential Who are insider traders? Corporate officers, directors, and employees who traded the corporations securities after learning of significant, confidential corporate developments. Friends, business associates, family members, and other types of such officers, directors, and employees, who traded the securities after receiving such information. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Law Cases Of Insider Trading In Multinational Corporations Finance Essay" essay for you Create order Why forbid insider trading? The prevention of insider trading is widely treated as an important function of securities regulation. In order to make sense of insider trading, we must have basic understanding of markets, prices and role of markets in the economy. Insider trading appears unfair, especially to speculators outside a company who face difficult competition in the form of insider trading. Who is Insider is defined under the SEBI Prohibition of Insider Trading regulation (SEC 2 (e)) Insider is the person who is connected with the company, who could have the unpublished price sensitive information or receive the information from somebody in the company. Who can be a connected person? For the purpose this definition, words connected person shall any person who is a connected person six months prior to an act of insider trading It could be director of the company ,or is deemed to be a director of the by virtue of sub-clause(10) of section 307 of the companies act 1956 He /She could be officer or professional of the company or holding a business relationship with the company. Any person having UPPI from the any subsidiary or group company is also stated to be the connected person. Connected person can also be from intermediaries like stock exchange, Merchant Bank, Transfer agent, debenture trustee, Bankers relatives of promoter or of BOD. What is price sensitive information? The Price sensitive information is defined in Regulation 2(h) (a) of the prohibition of Insider Trading. It means any information which relates directly or indirectly with the company which if published is likely to materially affect the prices of the securities of the company. The information which is deemed to be price sensitive is like- Periodical financial results Intended declaration of the dividends(both Interim Final) Issue of securities or buy -back of securities Any major expansion plans or execution of new projects. Amalgamation mergers or takeovers. Any significant changes in policies, plans or operations of the company. CASE 1: INFOSYS Background of the Case Infosys is an information technology Services Company headquartered inÂÂ  Bangalore, India. Infosys is one of the largest IT companies in India with 122,468 employees (including subsidiaries) as of 2010.ÂÂ  It has offices in 33 countries and development centers in India, China, Australia, UK and Canada. This case is regarding a technical violation of Companys insider trading rules by its CEO Kris Gopalakrishnan and an independent director Jeffrey Lehman and the Company imposing a fine on both of them. Course of Action Below listed are some of the extracts from the Infosys Code of Conduct against violation of Insider Trading Rules: In the normal course of business- officers, directors, employees, agents and consultants of the company may come into possession of significant sensitive information. This information is the property of the Company- you have been entrusted with it. You may not tip from it by buying or selling securities yourself. Further you are not to tip others to enable them to profit or from them to profit on your behalf. Insider traders must disgorge any profits made and are often subjected to an injunction against future violations. If there is a change in the shareholding pattern of an employee, he/she has to notify this change to the company within one business day. Finally, insider traders may be subjected to civil liability in private lawsuits. Mr. Gopalakrishnan had actually inherited 12800 equity shares of Infosys from his mother on December 24, 2007. But he inadvertently failed to notify the company about this inheritance of shares within one business day after the change in his shareholding. This, according to the company, constituted a violation of its insider trading rules. On the other hand, Mr. Lehman was found guilty for failure to correctly follow the procedure on sale of shares. Case Status ÂÂ  Infosys audit committee believed that Mr. Gopalakrishnan had no intention of contravening the rules and imposed the penalty of Rs 5 lakh and directed him to donate the amount to a charitable organization of his choice. Mr. Gopalakrishnan has made the donation. Mr. Lehman was also imposed a penalty of $2,000 and that amount, too, has been given to charity. The case is finally closed. References CASE 2: WOCKHARDT CASE Background of the Case Wockhardt is a global, pharmaceutical and biotechnology company. Wockhardt has a growing presence in worlds leading markets like Europe and the United States. It has been a significant player in global biopharmaceuticals market. The case is regarding the former CFO of Workhardt, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, who had been alleged to have traded in the companys shares on the basis of some insider information which was till then unpublished. It was supposedly reported that he along with his wife and his sister together traded in the companys shares on some insider information. Its the first in Indian corporate history that a company CFO has been charged and indicted of insider trading. Course of Action Rajiv Gandhi (appellant 1) is a Wockhardt Board Member as well as CFO of the company. He is primarily responsible for making financial reports like (balance sheets) for the company. He is a Wockhardt employee since 10 years. As per the SEBI regulations, every company is supposed to prepare its unaudited financial results on a quarterly basis and update it within one month from the end of the quarter to the respective stock exchanges. On 21st January, 1999, at 5 p.m. a meeting of the board of directors of the company was held to consider the quarterly financial results for the quarter ending 31st December, 1998. The financial results were announced on 22nd January, 1999 pre-trading and along with it an interim dividend @ 35% was declared. Wockhardts financial results actually showed a negative performance of the company for the December quarter. This information was somehow leaked and known by Gandhis wife Sandhya (appellant 2) and his sister Amishi (appellant 3). Sandhya and Amishi Gandhi traded on the companys shares multiple times during the entire year on the basis of some or the other Company information which they used to receive via Rajiv Gandhi. Below is the transaction history of Sandhya and Amishi Gandhi. 21/01/1999: Company board meeting was to be held at 5pm; they both together sold 2100 shares of Wockhardt at 2:37 pm and 2:42 pm. 22/01/1999: Company declares financial results and interim dividend pre-trading. Amishi and Sandhya Gandhi sold 1500 shares of Wockhardt at 9:59 am and 10:04 am. 21/04/1999: Amishi Gandhi sold another 2300 shares of Wockhardt at 10:16 am. 22/04/1999: Announcement of Companys financial results as well as a decision of demerger of the business was going to take place at 11:30 am. Amishi Gandhi sold another 1200 shares of the Company at 11:33 am. 23/04/1999: Due to demerger news, the share prices had fallen. Amishi again purchased the companys shares at an average rate at 10:08 am. The above transa ctions clearly proved that the appellants used to trade in the Companys shares as and when they used to get some or the other financial or non-financial information of the Company. As they used to get this information of the company from an insider (Rajiv Gandhi) and they used to trade on that information, they were alleged to be guilty of Insider trading. Case Status SEB I imposed a monetary penalty of Rs. 5 lakh under Section 15T of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 on Gandhi and then case was closed. References CASE 3 :ORACLE CASE Background of the Case This case is all about Christopher M. Balkenhol, the trader misused confidential information gleaned from spouse, who was lead executive assistant to Oracles CEO and Co-presidents.SEC Charges Former Oracle Vice President with Illegal Insider Trading in Stocks of Oracle Acquisition Targets. This case adds to a growing list of recent enforcement actions against corporate employees and securities industry professionals for trading on information about upcoming corporate transactions that they knew to be confidential. Course of Action Christopher Balkenhol, 40, of San Mateo California, learned about secret merger negotiations from his wife, who worked at Oracle as the lead executive assistant to Oracles CEO and two co-Presidents. Balkenhol used information from his wife to buy shares of two companies Retek and Siebel Systems before Oracle made public its plans to buy those companies. Series of insider trading by Balkenhol Relating to Retek- Balkenhol first engaged in insider trading around March of 2005, when he began buying shares of Retek, eventually purchasing $85,000 worth of the Minneapolis-based software firms shares, according to the SEC. The first purchases came just a day after Oracle executives first discussed making an offer for Retek. A week later, Oracle went public with a tender offer for Retek that caused that firms shares to surge. Balkenhol sold the shares on the jump, making an estimated $15,000 in alleged unlawful profits. Relating to Siebel Systems:- The same pattern emerged around Siebel Systems, the commission alleged, with Balkenhol buying more than $270,000 worth of Siebels stock starting just days after Oracles co presidents to whom his wife was also an assistant held a secret meeting with Siebels CEO to discuss a merger. Balkenhol made three more Siebel purchases over the next three months, each one coming shortly after the two companies held additional private talks. He ended up with some 50,000 shares of Siebel, worth around $450,000, stock that he unloaded shortly after Oracle announced on Sept. 12, 2005, that it would buy Siebel for around $5.8 billion. Balkenhol allegedly learned about the planned acquisitions from his wife, who had access to the schedules of Oracles three top executives and was aware of significant merger-related meetings. The Commission does not allege that Balkenhols wife knew about Balkenhols illicit trades. Rather, the complaint alleges that Balkenhol breached a duty not to misuse confidences gleaned from his wife for his own gain. Without admitting or denying the Commissions allegations, Balkenhol agreed to settle the action against him, paying a total of approximately $198,000-including a penalty of nearly $100,000. The total of approximately $198,000 Balkenhol agreed to pay in settlement of the Commissions action includes $97,282 in disgorgement, $4,115 in prejudgment interest and a $97,282 civil penalty. Balkenhol has also agreed to a permanent injunction from further violations of Sections 10(b) and 14(e) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, and Rules 10b-5 and 14e-3 there under. Case Status Case is settled by Balkenhol by paying $198,000 due to insider trading done by him for the violations of Sections 10(b) and 14(e) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, and Rules 10b-5 and 14e-3. References CASE 4 : RAKESH AGARWAL V/S SEBI Background of the case This case highlights principle of violation of acting on material non-public information which comes under regulations 3 and 4 of the SEBI (Prohibition of insider trading). In this case, Rakesh Agarwal, being insider of organization, is responsible to not act on material non-public information so as to protect the interest of the investors. Course of Action Rakesh Agarwal, the Appelant was the managing director of ABS industries Ltd. (ABS), a company incorporated under the companies act, 1956. ABS was subsequently acquired by Bayer AG (a company registered in Germany).He was involved in negotiations with Bayer A.G (a company registered in Germany), regarding their intentions to takeover ABS. Therefore, he had access to this unpublished price sensitive information. Bayer acquired controlling stake in ABS Industries Ltd by acquiring 55,80,000 shares @ Rs.70/ per share in a preferential allotment made by ABS Industries Ltd. and 20% shares from existing shareholders @ Rs.80/- per share in a public offer made by them It was alleged by SEBI that prior to the announcement of the acquisition, Rakesh Agarwal, through his brother in law, Mr. I.P. Kedia had purchased shares of ABS from the market and tendered the said shares in the open offer made by Bayer thereby making a substantial profit. By dealing in the shares of ABS through his brother-in-law while the information regarding the acquisition of 51% stake by Bayer was not public, the appellant had acted in violation of Regulation 3 and 4 of the Insider Trading Regulations. Rakesh Agarwal contended that he did this in the interests of the company. He desperately wanted this deal to click and pursuant to Bayers condition to acquire at least 51% shares of ABS, he tried his best at his personal level to supply them with the requisite number of shares, thus, resulting in him asking his brother-in-law to buy the aforesaid shares and later sell them to Bayer. Accusations by SEBI The SEBI directed Rakesh Agarwal to deposit Rs. 34,00,000 with Investor Education Protection Funds of Stock Exchange, Mumbai and NSE (in equal proportion i.e. Rs. 17,00,000 in each exchange) to compensate any investor which may make any claim aggrieved with the sale of shares of ABS industries to SHRI I.P.Kedia during the period 9-9-1996 to 1-10-1996 subsequently. along with a direction to (i) initiate prosecution under section 24 of the SEBI Act and (ii) adjudication proceedings under section 15I read with section 15 G of the SEBI Act against the Appellant. Appeal by SAT The Honble Securities Appellate Tribunal vide its order dated 3.11.2003 has allowed the captioned appeal finding that the appellant was not guilty of Insider Trading. However, the tribunal held that since Rakesh Agrawal acted in the interest of the company he cannot be considered to have violated the Insider Trading Regulations. The tribunal also held that although Rakesh Agrawal had made profit out of the transactions but it was only incidental to the cause of the interest of the company. However in appeal to SAT, SEBI later contested the SAT order in SC. Case Status The case was settled through consent order under section 24 of the SEBI Act with Agrawal paying a monetary penalty.